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Vehicle-to-Everything: How C-V2X Enables Autonomous Driving

Updated: Jun 13

By: Natasha Taylor

 

Driver's view of road from behind a wheel in a car

Through the continued development of V2X technology, more specifically the advancements within Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything (C-V2X), autonomous driving is to become one of the advanced use cases enabled by the technology.


As autonomous driving becomes more of a reality, it is seen as a key part of achieving increased road safety and traffic efficiency.


In total, there are six levels of autonomous driving that have been defined by the Society of Automated Engineers (SAE). These levels range from 0 (No Driving Automation) to 5 (Full Driving Automation).

​Level

​Automation

0

No Driving Automation

1

Driver Assistance

2

​Partial Driving Automation

3

Conditional Driving Automation

4

High Driving Automation

5

​Full Driving Automation

SAE Levels of Driving Automation. [1]



At present, most of the vehicles on roads do not have above Level 1 automation, meaning a driver will have complete control over the vehicle.


However, the number of partially automated vehicles on our roads utilizing Level 2 or Level 3 automation is growing. [2]


These vehicles are able to carry out basic automation tasks through the use of cameras and sensors such as Radar and LiDAR which allow a vehicle to understand what is happening around to provide safety for the driver.


The 360-degree picture provided by these sensors can be processed by the vehicle allowing it to respond automatically by carrying out basic tasks such as braking and acceleration.


Vehicles with lower levels of automation still have limited capacity and, therefore, a driver is still required to take control of the vehicle when dealing with urgent events.


While cameras, Radar, and LiDAR help pave the road to automation, there are limitations such as only being able to see objects in the line of sight of the vehicle. This means they cannot detect hazards that may be a few vehicles ahead, blocked, or around corners. Additionally, these sensors can be ineffective in bad weather conditions.


Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything (C-V2X) technology is able to act as a solution to these limitations by allowing sensors on roads and vehicles to communicate with each other, extending the coverage and blind-spot detection of autonomous vehicles to enable higher levels of automated driving for vehicle users.


For vehicles to operate with higher levels of automation, the automotive industry has recognized that connectivity is necessary to further increase the basic safety, comfort, and functionality of autonomous driving, particularly at Level 3 and Level 4. [2]


As an advanced vehicle communication sensor, C-V2X is able to directly connect all entities on the road and facilitate communication exchange between them.


By connecting drivers, pedestrians, and road infrastructure, C-V2X provides vehicles with critical information about what is not in its line of sight by detecting hazards or obstacles, even in poor weather conditions over a long distance.


C-V2X enables an ability that existing sensors lack: communication. Communication provided by C-V2X allows vehicles to “see through” and around obstacles on the road for a full and accurate picture of the surroundings.


This is achieved through data collection on V2X OBUs, RSUs, and other Aftermarket Safety Devices (ASDs), and enabling communication between those devices and other sensors.


Communication for urgent and safety-related situations is generally done through direct low-latency communication methods known as Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V), Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I), and Vehicle-to-Pedestrian (V2P).


Additional services can also be achieved with Vehicle-to-Network (V2N) communication through the use of cellular networks.


C-V2X technology is able to conduct direct real-time communication between entities and utilize cellular networks when needed.


With 5G-V2X, the technology will also perform well in high-dense traffic areas with high reliability, increasing the effectiveness of the communication to allow the transfer of driving power from the driver to the vehicle.


 

Sources:


1. Automated Driving: Levels of Driving Automation as per SAE International Standard J3016. Available: https://www.sae. org/news/2019/01/sae-updates-j3016-automated-driving-graphic.


2. Miao, L.; Chen, S.-F.; Hsu, Y.-L.; Hua, K.-L. How Does C-V2X Help Autonomous Driving to Avoid Accidents? Sensors 2022, 22, 686. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22020686


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